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Moments later, Sobotka encounters two port authority cops making their innocent rounds and asks when Russell is coming back from the Fairfield piers. His suspicions are further aroused when they tell him that she's not on the piers as she told Sobotka, but has been detailed to the city police.

Watching the clean container disappear back in the detail room, Daniels suddenly realizes he has no one at the dock to follow this container and orders McNulty to race over and track it to its destination. As McNulty flies into action, Russell calls the port authority cops and has them stop the truck with the clean container long enough to give McNulty time to arrive.

He calls Vondas at the diner, warning him that the wrong container is coming his way as a test, and demanding that a meeting with The Greek be arranged. George calls Vondas to complain, and is told to get rid of the stuff. You guys wanna go for a taste or two? While McNulty has ideas, he finds the domesticity of Russell's home life and kids off-putting, and leaves before any sparks fly.

Vondas tries to persuade them to meet with him, but Sobotka is angry and adamant, and only when he begins to leave does The Greek appear. Sobotka explains the reasons for his paranoia and advises that The Greek shut down the warehouse.

A new car, a new coat It's why we get up in the morning. In an apartment overlooking the scene, a young mother readies her children for school, but soon hits the floor when the rival gang shows up and shooting begins. Both gangs fire wildly, dispersing only when police sirens are heard. Upstairs, the mother discovers that one of her kids has been killed getting ready for school. The people they've been monitoring seem spooked. In a matter of two days, the warehouse thugs have gone from speaking in barely guarded language about drug sales to offering no information whatsoever.

And surveillance of the warehouse has turned up no traffic entering or leaving it, either. Furthermore, Russell observes, Sobotka hasn't used his cell phone lately. Stringer, meeting with Bodie, says he must now shut down the entire operation until the cops calm down.

Following orders, Bodie throws the guns off a bridge, but they land on a barge passing under at the moment, and are recovered by the police. They tell him they are laying low temporarily, but give him the number of White Mike, another dealer whom it turns out Nick went to high school with. After Nick leaves, they ponder how much the police know and if they're still on the case. Spiros and Eton have another problem, too. The Columbians to whom they sold the chemicals Nick helped them land are claiming the quality was not good are reneging on the payment they'd promised.

Glekas is interested but concerned he'll have trouble unloading new cars without titles. I'll be you got family in some place that don't give two fucks about whether an American car got title on it. Freamon asks to try to get a check on Glekas, too.

Calling Agent Koutris in that office, Fitz is told that the Glekas business was of little consequence and no charges were brought. Herc and Carver, alerted that the container may be coming to the warehouse they're watching, see it arrive, with Serge at the wheel.

Bodie registers surprise when they bring the guns his crew supposedly tossed in the water into the interrogation room, but the cops screw up when they tell Bodie they even have his fingerprints on the gun. Bodie had carefully wiped them off before throwing the guns away. And when he asks them which gun is his, they answer incorrectly. Vondas is upbeat, however, noting that they've been running clean containers from the dock and no one has stopped them, no one has followed them, nothing.

Later, when Eton conveys this news to Serge, Bunk and Russell are listening in the detail office. They also pick up the number of Eton's new phone and immediately ask Pearlman for an affidavit to tap it. It is assumed he is there for sex, so there is no discussion of the subject — or of money — just the presentation of girls. McNulty chooses two and repairs to a bedroom, where they begin to disrobe and remove his clothing.

He is so undone by their aggressiveness that he can't remember the code he's supposed to utter to bring in his squad for the bust. Finally it comes to him, and arrests are made all around. In the midst of the party, though, FBI agents and others cops arrive to open the container with the cocaine.

Koutris has a career-making bust on his hands. I ain't got Wee-Bey, or Stink, or Bird — and the wolves are at the door. Valchek tells Daniels that if something like that could be pinned on Sobotka, he would die happy. Rawls wants to know if they're any closer to solving the murders, and Daniels says that if the same people who are running the brothel are also importing the girls, then they are in fact much closer. Avon assures her he's looking for better product and meanwhile is bringing in muscle from New York to keep out rival dealers, a man named Brother Mouzone.

Amazed, Stringer takes this news to Proposition Joe, who is none too happy to hear it, either. Stringer reassures him that their deal is still on, and that they must deal with this problem together. Brother Mouzone has arrived. So Bodie is puzzled when Stringer stops by to tell him that henceforth, dealers from the east side of Baltimore will be working three buildings formerly controlled by the Barksdale crew. Bodie is instructed to be courteous to them and let them do their work. Puzzled, he questions Stringer, who explains that this is part of an agreement that's brought good-quality dope back to the neighborhood.

McNulty shows the detail a laptop into which the multiple GPS devices they've attached are feeding signals. With the tap of a button, the vehicles of any of the prime targets in the investigation can be tracked at that moment, as well as any of their travels for the previous seven days.

I always say it pays to go with the union card every time. Instead of driving the cars out of the lot through the holes, Ziggy drives each one onto the docks and into a shipping container. Mouzone tells Cheese that he's there to represent the interests of Mr. Barksdale, and asks Cheese to remove himself from the premises.

Cheese, puzzled, begins to explain that he's got permission to be selling there when Mouzone pulls out a pistol and shoots him in the shoulder. Stunned, Cheese departs at once. Daniels points out that the case is bigger than the union, and is reminded that nevertheless, the FBI is interested in the union's activities and that they can work together only if he can accept that fact. Ziggy tells Glekas that the cars sailed two hours ago on the Caspia and gives him the bill of lading.

Glekas hands him his payment, but it's half what he had promised, and when Ziggy protests, Glekas laughs at him. Enraged, Ziggy takes the money and leaves, but once outside, he stews. Instead of leaving, he returns to the store with his Glock and first shoots the clerk who works for Glekas, then Glekas himself.

Once he is down, Ziggy finishes Glekas off and turns to leave. Out front, he sits in his car trying to light a cigarette but is shaking too violently to do so. Instead he begins to cry as the police arrive. Kima and her lover, Cheryl, now pregnant, spar good naturedly. Using text messaging, The Greeks tries to shut his entire operation down immediately. Sobotka is shocked and appalled, and curses at Nick for not being with Ziggy.

When Daniels tries to intercede, Valchek shuts him up, too. And what did you give me? Right up the fuckin' ass, Lieutenant. Valchek leaves and Prez puts his gun on the table and walks into Daniels' office. He also observes Vondas sending a text message shutting down the operation.

Vondas tells Eton to go to Glekas's store and to the warehouse and remove any evidence that's still there, everything the police didn't take. Sure enough, they track it down, but when they get it, it must be translated. Finally, the message comes back to them that the Greeks have shut down their operations. The cops storm Glekas's appliance store but find the place utterly cleaned out, with only a bloodstain where Glekas died left behind.

The cops also burst into Nick's row house, rousting his parents and Aimee from their beds, although Nick is nowhere to be found. They do find a large stash of both heroin and cash, handcuff Aimee and toss the rest of the house. Sobotka, emerging from his house, is followed but not arrested, Valchek having sent word that he wants to perform that chore personally.

After finding his son accused of murder in the morning paper, Sobotka tellingly drives to the union hall, not the jail where Ziggy is incarcerated. Arriving home, he finds his mother and father — consumed by shame and anger — barely able to speak to him, although his father does inform him that the cops want him. At the union hall, smug and happy, Valchek arrests Sobotka.

The same homicide unit that can't put two and two together and pick up a phone, leaving me to read it a day and a half later in the Baltimore Sun. My bad. The offices and warehouse the Greeks used have been sanitized. When Sobotka asks them what they want, they tell him full cooperation. You help yourself and your union. Dry-docks rustin', piers standin' empty. My friends and their kids. Like we got the cancer. No lifeline got throwed, all that time.

Nuthin' from nobody And now you wanna help us. Help me. Where the fuck were you? He, however, is ready to chirp, especially after McNulty plays him a compelling audio tape that in court will nail him as a drug dealer. The problem is, as a low-level outsider, Mike's knowledge of the Greeks and their organization is limited. Got tired of bein' the punch line to every joke. He also reveals to Sobotka that he's known for years that Frank is not his real father.

Stringer has decided to defy Avon and have Brother Mouzone offed so that he can uphold his deal to cede territory to Proposition Joe in exchange for quality dope. Taking the bait, Omar shoots Mouzone, wounding but not killing him. Bleeding badly, Mouzone convinces Omar that he had nothing to do with Brandon's killing, and, believing him, Omar calls an ambulance instead of shooting Mouzone. He volunteers for stevedore work at the union hiring hall, and spends the day loading ships and securing the loads to the decks.

When Vondas leaves the hotel with his lawyer, however, The Greek trails behind, and neither Russell nor any of the more seasoned cops pick up on his presence. Worse, they manage to lose Vondas altogether. He accepts, agreeing to meet with Daniels and Pearlman, ready to spill his guts. Pearlman, playing by the book, stops him however, and tells him to return in the morning with a lawyer at his side. The most obvious way, they decide, is to pressure the young clerk Ziggy shot in Glekas's store to change his story and tell the cops that Ziggy fired in self-defense.

Vondas feels certain that Sobotka, able suddenly to spring his son from jail, would be less inclined to talk to the police. And of Nick, whom Vondas has grown fond, Vondas says don't worry. When he meets Nick later and tells him of the plan to pressure the clerk, he asks to meet with Sobotka in person, to be sure of his cooperation.

Nick urges him to reconsider, telling Sobotka of the Greek's scheme to lift some of Ziggy's weight by leaning on the clerk to change his story. Intrigued, Sobotka agrees to meet with Vondas, but forbids Nick to come with him. As Sobotka makes his way to the lonely spot under the Key Bridge for his meeting with Vondas, the FBI agent Koutris sends a message to The Greek and warns him of Sobotka's intention to tell the police what he knows.

With Sobotka in sight, The Greek tells Vondas that the union leader must not leave their meeting alive. Always business. About the same time, Nick knocks on his uncle Frank Sobotka's door and learns he never returned home the previous evening.

Fearing the worst, he races to the desolate spot under the Key Bridge where Sobotka was to meet Vondas and The Greek the evening before and finds Sobotka's truck parked and locked. Nick arrives at the same moment and sees, as the policemen lift off a body — Frank Sobotka — stabbed, throat slashed and blue from 18 hours in the water.

Inform Mr. Barksdale that any obligation he feels might have with regards to this incident, it's absolved, along with our agreement. Instead, with his father, he turns himself in at police headquarters. He didn't actually kill Mouzone, Omar explains, because Mouzone seemed genuinely puzzled when Omar accused him of killing Brandon.

When the conversation turns to the contretemps with Prez, Valchek says he intends to bring charges against his son-in-law. Daniels, at his cunning best, explains all the witnesses to the incident — FBI agents and his own detail — wrote up reports on what they saw, and included the fact that Valchek incited Prez, a subordinate officer.

Valchek backs down and demands a slap-on-the-wrist punishment for Prez. Daniels smiles secretly, having saved his man. Burrell wonders if they have a leak in the squad. Daniels trusts his people, he says, and Pearlman has everything under lock and key at the courthouse. Only Fitzhugh seems uncertain, but he says nothing. But when he's picked up, Pearlman says, they have a solid case of racketeering, drugs and prostitution against him.

As for the union, Reese explains, with Sobotka dead, the FBI has an inconsequential case against a subordinate or two of his. Either the union jettisons the current leadership, or we have enough to get that local decertified. They do not realize that he is visiting The Greek at a hotel in downtown Baltimore to discuss how much effort should be put into killing Nick, who, having realized they've killed his uncle, is more inclined to spill his guts to the police.

They also discuss the kilos of heroin soon to arrive at the cargo dock, and decide to let it remain there. He tells Pearlman, Freamon and Bunk not to bother with a lawyer for him. He knows the Greeks killed Sobotka, he says, because Sobotka met with them the previous evening, after having told Nick of his intention to finger them. Nick felt he had convinced Sobotka to change his mind by revealing the Greeks' plan to bring pressure on the clerk in Glekas's store to change his story.

If Ziggy could claim self-defense, he'd walk, Nick says. And Sobotka, apparently agreeing with him, had left to meet with the Greeks. That's all. Bunk explains to Nick that Sobotka had cut a deal to make things easier on Nick and on Ziggy before he was killed, and the police are willing to extend that deal to Nick.

The only lie he tells, trying to save one of his own, is that Horseface is clean. He also tells them it was Serge who went to Philly and killed the Atlantic Light seaman because he was responsible for the death of the girls. And he I'Ds a photo of The Greek, marking their primary target for the first time. Realizing Nick is a prime target now for the Greeks, the police pick up his girlfriend Aimee and his daughter and sequester the three of them in a motel room.

Troubled, Fitz calls the San Diego Field Office and is speechless when he learns that Agent Koutris is no longer there, and in fact was transferred to the D. Avon is irritated when Stringer tells him he asked Mouzone who shot him. Either he gonna say, or he gonna go to work on it. But either way, you ain't askin' such shit. Confronted with the evidence back at the interrogation room, Serge flips, fingering Vondas as the seaman's killer and explaining that he was murdered because he had killed the women in the container.

The fourteen homicides solved at last, the cops press Serge for details on the whereabouts of Vondas and The Greek. He directs them to a downtown hotel room, but by the time the cops arrive, the two are gone, passing through customs at the airport. Nick has copped to smuggling on the cargo docks and dealing drugs; Serge has cleared up the murder of the girls; White Mike is down for narcotics.

The question is whether to bring Proposition Joe in, too, since they have enough to indict him. Greggs suggests they wait, revealing a surveillance photo of Stringer meeting with Proposition Joe. Hooked up like that over who knows what. But Frank is still gonna be dead and the port is still screwed and the guy who killed the girls, he got killed anyway. And the girls — I mean the ones we locked up, they're probably back in Europe right now getting into another shipping container.

Poot responds that he has a lot of good memories growing up there, including losing his virginity to Chantay in 7th Grade. Bodie suggests that she gave Poot the clap — more than once. Daniels' taskforce is still chasing drug dealers — notably Proposition Joe's drug enterprise, and Detectives McNulty and Sydnor are holed up in a vacant house in East Baltimore watching Prop Joe's soldier Cheese working the corner.

After six months of taps and no real case to make, Daniels is frustrated, too, and to McNulty's consternation, suggests they don't renew the wiretap order when it expires in two weeks. The dilemma they face is that their prime drug territory — the Towers — no longer exists. The crew focuses on new corners they want to take over, but Bell has a bigger plan. Because he has the best product, he's confident the idea will work.

Their latest scheme — heisting a cast-iron radiator for a few bucks, goes perilously awry when the grocery cart they're pushing the radiator in crashes into a Cadillac SUV that belongs to a crewmember of the Barksdale rival drug lord Marlo Stanfield. Marlo emerges as his soldier owner holds a gun to Johnny's head. After the meeting, Carcetti takes Burrell to lunch and makes him an offer. If Burrell will quietly let Carcetti know when the Mayor won't give Burrell what he needs to run the police force properly, Carcetti will deliver.

Cutty is due for release after 14 years in prison, and Avon wants to recruit him. He gives Cutty a number to call for help making a reentry, and tells him he can offer employment as a soldier in his operation. The reason: Daniels wife, from whom he is now estranged, wants to run for City Council, which means she'll be running against a friend of the Mayor's, Eunetta Perkins.

Her team wants to picture Daniels in his police uniform in her campaign literature, and Daniels — distraught about his estrangement from Marla — is more than willing to cooperate. He also sees her new boyfriend and is none too happy. Soon, Bunk's cell phone rings and he's called in to work on his day off because a raft of new cases has come in. In a meeting later with the Mayor and his Chief of Staff, they share their disdain for Carcetti.

Not a lot of favors we can call in over that side of town. Rawls orders that felony cases must drop by 5 percent for the year, and murders must be kept under So there is no excuse I want to hear. I don't care how you do it, just fucking do it. But how do you make a body disappear? Obsessed with the case, he pulls out the two year old Barksdale records and looks through them for new leads. When Massey observes the mess he's made, she asks him what in hell he's doing.

Instead of cash, however, Avon's soldier gives him a package of heroin ready for sale. Cutty is nervous, and cuts a deal with a Marlo Stanfield soldier named Fruit to sell for the dope for him. But when Cutty comes back to collect his share of the proceeds, Fruit pulls a gun on him and tells him to get lost.

What he sees is not reassuring. Stopped at a red light, Colvin is incredulous when a young dealer pops his head in the car window and offers to sell the Major some heroin. With friend and partner in crime Kimmy, the two con their way into a Barksdale stash house, and in a heist that's almost too easy, make off with the drugs and the cash.

Avon is philosophical when he learns that the Towers are gone. No threats. Indeed, when Barksdale's drug crews fan out to new territory, pitching their scheme, they encounter a fair amount of skepticism from mid-level dealers. When Marlo finally shows up and Bodie approaches him, Marlo brushes him off. What they see is not convincing, and McNulty suspects 'DAngelo was murdered.

Later, he pays a visit to Donette, fishing for clues as to who might have taken 'DAngelo out. Donette is openly hostile to him. Giving in, Burrell tells Carcetti he's having trouble getting out-of-service squad cars back on the street, which means beats on every shift go uncovered. Burrell reveals to the Councilman that in spite of the fact that 70 cops are retiring by year's end, the Mayor has cancelled the Academy Class in which new recruits are inducted.

Cause I know that money was in the budget. Confident that his pit bull will win the match with a dog owned by the dealer Dazz, Cheese's cocky demeanor turns to shock as his dog goes down quickly. Cheese then shoots his dog rather than give him medical help, and grows even angrier when another dealer, Triage, points out a red rag on the floor that Dazz rubbed down his dog with before the match.

Implying that some chemical may have been on the rag, Triage suggests that Cheese was gamed. All of a sudden, this case has legs. McNulty argues that the arrests will force them to reveal the tap's existence, and pushes Daniels to be patient to see what else the wire will bring. Cheese is arrested, nevertheless, and when Bunk and McNulty sweat him for details, their error finally becomes apparent.

The only thing Cheese has killed is his dog. Bunk and McNulty are appalled at the mistake. And sure enough, the wire soon goes silent, and gloom overtakes the Detail. She ignores him, and after he leaves, Pearlman goes home with Daniels instead. One night when Greggs comes in late, the house is a wreck and Cheryl is asleep on their bed with the baby. Greggs heads back out into the night, visiting a lesbian bar. Colvin sits bolt upright when he learns the news in the middle of the night.

Carver, who sent Dozerman out solo, is wracked with guilt. I shoulda teamed him. I fucked up. After Colvin visits the crime scene, he unburdens himself over a cup of coffee with a deacon from his church. Because my shot cop didn't die. And it hit me This is what makes a good night on my watch: absence of a negative. But somewhere back in the '50s, there was a small moment of goddamn genius by some nameless smokehound who comes out of a cut-rate one day and on his way to the corner, slips that just-bought pint of elderberry into a paper bag.

A great moment of civic compromise. That small wrinkled-ass paper bag allowed the corner boys to drink in peace while giving us permission to go do police work. Until now. After being raked over the coals in front of his peers, Major Marvin Taylor, the Eastern District Commander, is further humiliated as Burrell publicly relieves him of his duties and names Taylor's second in command to replace him. But when they return later to pull off the heist, things go terribly wrong.

Barksdale soldiers in another part of the house are alerted to the robbery and open fire. In the fierce shootout that follows, Tosha is shot in the head and killed, accidentally by Dante, and one of Barksdale's team is killed. Bell is furious when he learns that Omar is still intent on pursuing revenge.

He also reveals that he sold Dozerman's gun to a street punk named Peanut. Landsman orders Bunk to recover the gun, as a matter of principle. He explains to Bell that the cops believed Cheese was talking about killing a person when in fact he was talking about having killed his dog. Carcetti then calls Burrell to let him know he'll be getting a call from the reporter, and Burrell is furious.

Calming the Commissioner down, Carcetti urges Burrell simply to inform the Mayor that someone has leaked the information to the press. Later, when Burrell meets with Mayor Royce, the Mayor is indeed annoyed about the leak and tells Burrell that he must take the heat when the story goes public.

That way the Mayor can step in and announce that there will in fact be an academy class, and he'll look like the hero. Burrell is none too happy about this, but in the end, as Carcetti reminds him, the goal of reinstating the academy class, is in fact, achieved.

Greggs complains loudly that all the work they've put in on Bell and Prop Joe will go to waste, but Daniels is firm. The biggest priority is bringing down the murder rate. At the prison, McNulty puts the belt around his neck that 'DAngelo used, but finds it won't tighten properly when he simulates the suicide, proving to him that 'DAngelo was murdered.

And they know you're police when they move in. And they know you're police when they decide to start a family with you. And all that shit is just fine until one day it ain't no more. One day, it's 'You should have a regular job. Fuck 'em if they can't take a joke. It's Baltimore gentlemen, the gods will not save you. Fruit explains that the Barksdale dealers have taken up residence on his block and are stealing customers.

Marlo tells him to do something about it. She's married, drives a nice car and teaches school in another part of town. She is less than thrilled to see Cutty, a face from her past, but she is civil to him and even offers to introduce him to a friend who might help Cutty find a decent job. The idea is to warn the street level dealers that they can continue to sell drugs, but they must limit their activities to one of three areas of the city full of abandoned buildings.

As long as they confine their dealing to these areas, the cops will let them be. But if they don't get with the program, they will be arrested and rearrested until they get the picture. The cops are outraged by the proposal, which in effect sanctions the illegal activity.

Once we have them all comfortable, and all rounded up, once they've been there a bit and get used to putting their feet up, playing with the remote, then we move. Then we go back to being police. Look at it this way, gentlemen: would you rather shoot at fish in the ocean? Or gather 'em all up in a few small barrels and start emptying your clips then? Spotting an attractive woman, he sends his family home and makes a move, later ending up in the woman's room. With Cole lying in state on a pool table, amidst much revelry and maudlin toasts, the cops bid him farewell.

He put down some good cases and he dogged a few bad ones. But the motherfucker had his moments. Yes, he fucking did. The place is crawling with Barksdale soldiers, hoping Omar shows his face. Omar mourns from across the street, hidden in the shadows, smoking a cigarette. West Baltimore residents get surprising straight talk at a community meeting from Major Colvin.

Bubbles finds gainful employment; Stringer lunches uptown; and Bunk dangles the promise of immunity to a group of corner boys, in exchange for help. Greggs learns how Marlo takes care of business as Bubbles instructs her on the next big thing: disposable cell phones.

Frustrated in his grass-roots reform efforts, Colvin arms himself with intelligence from Daniels's detail and personally delivers a message to the next level of corner management. McNulty sees Stringer Bell's legitimate business dealings as a sign that he is now unreachable as a drug target. Bubbles shakes the tree for Johnny one more time. Stringer Bell gets an education in construction management; Bunk uses shoe-leather to catch up with Omar and deliver a searing message; a frustrated Colvin unleashes the troops on the corner boys, ignoring his new edict; Avon sends Cutty and Slim Charles against Marlo; Bubbles refocuses the picture for Greggs.

Herc discovers a blast from the past, which he belatedly reveals to his ex-colleagues. Daniels blows a gasket over the real reason the detail was reassigned from an investigation in Pimlico to the Western District. Stringer Bell learns from Donette that she's told Brianna about McNulty's visit and that Brianna is likely to talk to him.

With Amsterdam running full-tilt, Carver and Truck discover there really is no honor among thieves. Prez impresses the detail with what he's found out from Bodie's cell phone, information that sends McNulty and Greggs on a road trip. Colvin sees the benefits of his plan working but has overlooked the human toll, until the Deacon points out the deficiencies.

Responding to an officer's call for help, McNulty and Prez turn down the wrong alley, with unanticipated results. A Barksdale crew violates the unspoken Sunday truce with gunplay, increasing discontent among the New Day Co-op members.

Stymied in his effort to open a gym, Cutty is surprised to find help from within Baltimore's power structure. Brother Mouzone returns to Baltimore on a mission of revenge and casts a wide net in his search for Omar, who has his own plan. Colvin manages, for now, to put off a 'Sun' reporter inquiring about Amsterdam. Carver learns how much he doesn't know about good policing, while Pearlman and Daniels plead their case for a new kind of wiretap to Judge Phelan.

The wire begins to yield information about the Barksdale organization, though finding links to the top proves elusive. Stringer and Avon reflect on how far they've come, with each harboring plans for the future. Tipped by Burrell, Carcetti sees Amsterdam for himself and weighs the benefits against the political reality. In the Season Three finale, a reticent Avon readies his troops for a war against Marlo.

Meanwhile, as the detail works towards the top rungs of the Barksdale organization, McNulty reassesses his pursuit of Stringer Bell and the path he's chosen for himself. While Royce continues to grapple with Amsterdam, Burrell offers a deal to minimize the fallout. Freamon, for his part, is mildly disappointed in their target: Marlo Stanfield hasn't turned out to be as sharp or as fierce as they thought - no bodies that would suggest violence can be traced to the drug organization, and the group's liberal use of cellphones means that eventually, it will be relatively simple to build a conspiracy case.

Marlo, Freamon reasons, is no Avon Barksdale. Nonetheless, they want another 30 days on the taps, as well as subpoenas for documents - the latter not for Stanfield, but to follow up on the Barksdale money trail. Why now, Pearlman wonders? Freamon tells her he couldn't back to researching the Barksdale finances because other casework intervened.

Freamon assures her the Lieutenant approves and feigns indifference to the coming election. Deputy campaign manager Norman Wilson cuts them off - Carcetti's behind schedule once again. Asher's office with a stack of mundane paperwork for his signature, burying the drug money subpoenas between a fan requisition and vehicle logs.

Distracted by blueprints for his beach house, Asher signs them, no problem. As Lex carries on about his girl, Patrice, taking up with one of Marlo's guys - Fruit - Slim Charles pulls up, checking in on why things are so slow. Bodie complains that he has been forced off the Fayette Street because Marlo wanted that real estate and the new corner isn't prime. He is angry at being pushed off his old strip and would like to beef with Marlo's crew, but Slim Charles cautions him.

Royce fields messages from his secretary as they head out, putting off a donor - developer Andy Krawcyzk, it seems - and playing games with Carcetti's people, who are demanding two debates. Nonetheless, with business slow, Bodie relents and pays Namond for a half day. He complains to Lex about Namond's work ethic, saying he only employs the boy out of respect for his father. Least I hope it ain't. Snoop pours quicklime on the body which is then wrapped in a shower curtain.

They exit with their box of tools. As they try to catch the bird, Dukie throws a bug bomb - a bottle with bugs trapped inside - and the sound scares away the quarry. Namond and Dukie trade insults and then a few blows before Michael interposes. The boys all walk away from Dukie - save for Randy, to whom Dukie confides to Randy that the pigeon wasn't a homer - it didn't have a metal tag.

Nemo's been letting Dukie clean out the coop. He hasn't received his certification yet, but staff shortages in the system mean he will be getting classes nonetheless. They are dubious about his qualifications until he tells them he used to be a city police.

That, at least, bodes well in their minds. Dennis Mello, when patrolman Jimmy McNulty knocks and is urged - not for the first time - to get out of a radio car and return to investigative duties, for which there is a desperate need in the district.

For us, yes, Daniels concedes. But for McNulty, maybe not. Sergeant Ellis Carver and Off. Anthony Colicchio pull up. Carver waits for Bodie to say a proper farewell. Though I do care about what your cute little blonde wife thinks about so many things Eventually, and with reluctance, he begins to make the calls. He surprises them as they leave, shoots Fruit in the head, then greets Patrice, who flees horrified. Lex saunters away, leaving Fruit dead on the pavement.

When Freamon joins homicide detectives Bunk Moreland and Ed Norris to review the details of the shooting, Norris asks him if this hurts Freamon's investigation, losing a guy they had wired. But Freamon notes they've got several wires at the street level and with or without Fruit, they are progressing. Bunk gives Freamon Fruit's cellphone as a consolation prize - he can pull other numbers off it - and they discuss the fact that Marlo, who seems to be the new power in West Baltimore, has been so quiet.

Disappointed in the bluster and lack of logic shown by some of his lieutenants, Marlo shares a look with Chris before rejecting their offer to kill everyone on Bodie's corner in retaliation. He did one of ours, so he need to fall. Namond wants to hit back, but harder, and Randy gets an idea.

It starts with Michael stealing a bike off a Terrace kid, setting the gang off after him, until they turn a corner and are ambushed by our boys - all of whom have armed themselves with balloons filled with their own urine. For a moment, it seems perfect until Namond wets himself with his own balloon and the rest of the boys panic, dumping their balloons and fleeing. He can barely contain himself by the time he meets with local activist Victorine Simmons, but once he calms down and takes a tour of her drug-addled community, Carcetti is moved to actually help - even though Royce has instructed city agencies not to take constituent service calls from his challenger.

Nonetheless, Carcetti - calling bureaucrats at him and pulling favors - finds a way to get it done. Later, on the campaign trail, Carcetti encounters his fellow Councilman and one-time friend, Tony Gray, who he tacetly allowed to challenge Royce before revealing his own intention to run, thereby using Gray to split the city's black vote. McNulty, laughing at the roll-call room rebellion, is accosted by Bunk, who tries to squeeze McNulty for info on Lex - and plan a boy's night out with Jameson's and Glen Livet.

Instead McNulty directs Bunk to Carver, who he says has learned the job, and offers an invite to dinner with Beadie and the kids, much to Bunk's dismay. He loves it. Or perhaps, the idea of what he will soon make it. Meanwhile, Carver and Bunk stake out Bodie's corner a short distance away, looking for Lex, but see no sign of him and Carver assures Bunk he will come back tomorrow to jack Lex when he returns to the corner.

Convinced he can't win, he storms out. Contemplating his future, Carcetti gets a warning from a cop for drinking in Federal Hill park after curfew. And, as a siren goes by, Randy sitting up late on his front stoop, worried about Little Kevin's words, is ordered back inside by a foster mother who seems to parent him closely.

Opening doors in his search for his supervisor, Herc is surprised to encounter Mayor Clarence Royce on the receiving end of a robust act of fellatio, courtesy of his secretary. Stunned like a cow with a sledgehammer, Herc stares at the sight for a moment before slamming shut the door.

In that moment, the Mayor sees him. Sydnor is having second thoughts about whether their pursuit of the money will blow back on them by antagonizing the powerful and politically connected elements in the city. Pearlman, too, is wishing she had run the subpoenas by her front office, alerting her bosses to the coming controversy and thereby protecting herself from retribution.

Freamon quickly realizes that Pearlman has not forwarded signed subpoenas for two notable targets --developer Andrew Kracyzk and State Sen. Clay Davis. Pearlman responds that she is holding those until after the primary election. Freamon gets angry and points out that now -- with the election in play -- is the only window they have for seeing this pursuit of the Barksdale money trail through. Months ago, the powers that be would have taken down the unit and stifled the investigation.

Months from now, with the election in the bag, they will do the same. But now, with the election ongoing and politicians being scrutinized, those in power will not dare to impede the subpeonas of the investigation itself. And that includes Pearlman's boss, State's Attorney Demper, who is among those running for reelection on the Democratic ticket. Pearlman recalls Freamon's earlier claim that he only recently was able to get back to the Barksdale money trail because other cases intervened, and she realizes that he lied to her.

Freamon has timed this carefully. But Tommy's playing Battleship with his daughter and refuses to be rushed, insisting that since there's no way he can win the election, he may as well enjoy some quality time with his child. Tilghman middle-school classroom Prez inherited is now unrecognizable: clean and orderly. Unfazed by hacking at dried bubblegum and scrubbing ink-stained desks, Prez has whipped his room into Prez-like obsessive-compulsive order.

Incarcerated on multiple life sentences for his role as an enforcer in the now-fallen Barksdale organization, Wee-Bey asks his son how his job is going with Bodie Broadus, and De'Londa jumps in, reporting that Namond skips work and wastes the money he does make. Their truck's driver, impressed, notes that Cutty could run his own crew and suggests they team up, but Cutty demurs, saying he has other obligations that matter more.

When Bodie resists, Namond suggests Michael assume Namond's position until he earns enough to pay for school stuff for himself and his little brother. Bodie agrees just as Bunk and Carver approach, looking for Lex.

Eeluctant to talk to police, Bodie says nothing about what he knows about the murder of Fruit by Lex, or Lex's subsequent disappearance, but merely reports he hasn't seen Lex, and promises to call Carver if he does. When Sherrod miscalculates the total price of a sale, Bubbles is distressed.

Later, he chastises Sherrod about his weak math skills and demands that he return to school to improve himself this fall. The FOP president agrees. Norman gives Carcetti the rest of the night off to prep for the debate, but Carcetti is still convinced nothing matters at this point. Among other places. But Daniels just finds it funny. Only Michael refuses the cash and Marlo crosses to ask Michael why he won't take his money. As Marlo shows some belligerence and turns insulting, Michael just stares him down.

When they press him to focus, he reels off his strategy for when Royce comes at him on themes of race and crime, impressing them. They're interrupted by Donut, their sixth-grade companion, barely visible above the wheel of the stolen Cadillac Escalade he's attempting to drive. But as they're all debating where to take it, Carver and Herc drive by and, spotting the stolen car, begin a pursuit.

The boys bail from the SUV and bolt into the alleys. Carver calls in the bailout and starts to give chase, then thinks the better of it; he knows most of the kids, Herc's overdressed, and they need to see Carver's contact about Herc's situation. But Greggs will not be cowed and Sydnor reluctantly follows. Gregg's first stop is Andrew Krawczyk at his waterfront development office; he asks for her name and unit and she gives him both, unwavering.

Sydnor hits Clay Davis, and tries to defuse the situation by pretending to admire his office trophies and awards as Davis, outraged, demands his name. In for a penny, in for a pound: Sydnor refuses to back down from the moment and hands over his card.

Just shut up and play dumb. He storms out as Parker enters, announcing a similar complaining call from Krawczyk. Before he takes the call, Royce asks about Herc. He's mulling over whether to let him go or keep him close. Clearly, Cutty -- as a law-abiding single man working with youth -- is a fresh prize among the ladies of West Baltimore. They make him as Old Face Andre, a mid-level dealer supplied by the Stanfield organization.

They are also fascinated by the notion that they are listening to Marlo getting on Monk's phone to berate Andre -- indicating that he is less cautious about using cellphones himself and therefore vulnerable. They also wonder about the barrage of gunshots heard in the background -- notable given the lack of violence seen from Marlo's organization.

The Mayor wants no more surprises in this election season. But Landsman tells him to bury the witness angle in his initial reports because it's an election year then calls Major Valchek to report these developments. Valchek, in turn, shows up at Carcetti's with news of a murdered witness -- which Carcetti had apparently told him to keep a close watch for, should such a thing occur. In the front office, Assistant Principal Marcia Donnelly asks a student to take a box of new school clothes to Dukie as a cleaned-up Bubbles shows up, claiming to be Sherrod's uncle so as to enroll him in class.

As they pass in the office, Prez and Bubbles exchange an awkward glance of confused recognition. Cutty's now-veteran fighters, Justin and Spider, interrupt to pick a fight over the use of the bag, and Cutty breaks up the scuffle. Cutty uses the opportunity to try to lure Michael into being officially trained, and though he seems intrigued, Michael stubbornly refuses. He blames the Mayor for refusing to spend the witness protection money that Carcetti himself secured from the Feds, reminding Royce that he wrote to the mayor last year, expressing his disappointment over the matter in a signed letter.

As the Mayor responds haltingly, his aides, as well as Burrell and Rawls, watch grimly, while Carcetti's crowd beams. Rawls reminds Burrell that the Mayor wanted no more suprises coming out of the police department -- presumably that included news that a state's witness had been murdered. He turns on the TV in his room.

The debate is still on and some politician -- Tony Gray, as it happens -- is talking about schools and the relevance of education; Namond switches on his X-Box, and starts firing away. Everybody all friendly an' shit. As Omar lights a Newport, a bag of vialed, ready-to-sling cocaine drops to his feet. Back at home, he dumps the bag on the breakfast table, then laments that he doesn't even want it.

The Deacon has already sold the UM faculty on employing his friend, who carries some gravitas with the academics as the police commander who tried to legalize drugs in West Baltimore. But Colvin notes that the academics were the only ones who liked the idea and he says he's had his fill of do-gooders. It's clear that Bodie has made a little something out of the formerly moribund strip.

Bodie tenses as they approach, but Chris assures him they are there to parley only. Marlo tells him he needs the corner now that it's developed. Upset about Carcetti's eight point bump in the wake of that ambush, Royce takes the gloves off, telling his team to begin playing hardball, tearing up campaign signs and towing Carcetti's vehicles and telling campaign donors that they can't ride the fence and give to both him and his opponents. Demper protests about having to take any blame at first.

After Demper and Burrell exit, Watkins points out that Carcetti has a point about the Royce administration failing to claim matching funds that Carcetti had Watkins secure a year earlier during the previous legislative session in Annapolis. Royce explains that he will claim those funds after the primary, for the next fiscal year. To do so prior would have given Carcetti a campaign highlight. Bodie, impressed, tries to get Michael to work the after school rush hours, but Michael wants to quit now that he's repaid the money he needed for back-to-school supplies for himself and his younger brother.

Besides, school's starting. Renaldo asks if Greggs is federal and Omar replies that she is city police and that he knows and likes her - up to a point. A school girl goes in the store, all dressed up and carrying a backpack - on the day before school starts - raising Omar's suspicions.

He assumes that Greggs would notice such a detail as well. After the girl leaves - minus her backpack - Greggs heads into the store to buy some gum and check it out. She notices better security cameras outside the store than inside, as well as reinforced doors - indicative of a stash house rather than a viable grocery.

As she drives away, Omar notes she needs more patience. But Greggs is off to report what she saw at Old Face Andre's to Freamon, who has been doing wiretap work ever since they picked up the call from Andre to Monk, a Stanfield lieutenant, a week prior - the one in which an irate Stanfield grabbed his lieutenant's phone and told Andre not to harry him.

They consult the wiretap chart, trying to link Andre into the higher rungs of the Stanfield organization. Asher then leaves his office, saying he's been called downtown by Deputy Commissioner of Operations William Rawls. They deny it, of course. No more movement on the subpoenas, which will not be answered until after the primary in any event.

Asher arrives for his meeting with Rawls and is relieved of command of Major Crimes, transferred to the Telephone Reporting unit, and told he has done a fine job. Just fine. Afterward, Bunk lures McNulty out for drink at their old haunt of the railroad track, but McNulty nurses a single beer, much to Bunk's disappointment.

Bunk presses him on whether he's really comfortable in his new life. On Marlo's weaker package, his profits will fall. Bodie wants to fight back, but he is alone now. Slim explains that the people he is working with now - Prop Joe and the New Day Co-op, of course - they aren't going to battle for any territory.

Later back in a discount hotel meeting room, the Co-op crew, including Proposition Joe, Slim Charles and Fat-face Rick and others, meet to discuss how to handle Marlo's hegemony and that of the New York Boys on the eastside. Marlo is running off some of the independents supplied by the Co-op on the Westside, or forcing them to take their package.

But the bigger problem is the recent emigrants from Brooklyn and the Bronx, setting up shop in East Baltimore and running various local crews off. The Co-op finds consensus: If they are going to bump with the New Yorkers, they need to stand together and Marlo, as young and violent as he is, would be an asset in that regard. Proposition suggests its time to talk to Marlo again, to get him to cooperate, but Slim is skeptical he'll listen. Colvin wants to arrest the assailant for assault, but the manager doesn't want any trouble for a customer who is instrumental in booking conventions into Baltimore.

The next day he tracks down Deacon to see about the social work grant he dismissed earlier. When the reason is given, it is insufficient. Marimow asserts his leadership and says he wants to be briefed on every action by the unit. Freamon, Greggs and Sydnor are not thrilled with the new boss.

Prez struggles to control his homeroom class. But the kids ignore his seating chart, steal his bus and hall passes and disrespect his authority. Fellow teacher Grace Sampson has to step in to restore order. Briefed about this very outcome by Major Valchek earlier, Herc feigns surprise as, Royce, after establishing Herc's loyalty, offers to make a call to push Herc's name to the top of the sergeant's list and then move him off the mayoral detail and back into another assignment.

One girl, Chiquan, refuses to sit near Dukie, complaining that he smells. Humiliated, Dukie says nothing. Chiquan provokes another girl, flashing the sun with a piece of jewelry to shine in the other girl's face. The teased girl goes for Chiquan, Prez tries to break it up and chaos breaks out until Grace arrives once again to help restore order. He lays down the law - no more long-term wire taps, no more subpoenas. He declares the Barksdale case closed immediately and says that when the fledgling Stanfield wiretaps come up for renewal, they will be terminated as well.

Freamon argues it's up to a judge to decide when a wiretap comes down, but Marimow informs him the Deputy Commissioner for Operations will be talking to him about that very subject. He works the crowd, pitching his product: a backpack full of candy. Dukie watches with amusement, while he plays with a plastic battery-operated mini fan he's found inoperative in the street on the way to school. To distract Andre, Omar sent Renaldo into the store with a small-caliber handgun, knowing that Andre would be confident in the depth of his plexiglass.

But while Andre is preparing to counter Renaldo, Omar slips past the security camera, enters the store and fires a shot high, through the plexiglass, using a large-caliber semi-auto. Renaldo gives up the package, and Omar to rub it in buys a pack of Newports and demands his change. He's looking for to year olds. Colvin thinks a too late to be trying to influence behavior; by that time they are already lost to the game. Clearly, they are planning to use the wake as a campaign event.

He enters the funeral home, pays his respects to the boy's mother, launching into a speech before stopping himself. But Carcetti considers appearances and implies that the real audience at this moment might be Watkins. Better to appear sincere at this moment, rather than calculating - he calculates. Carver to let him and the professor talk to an year-old kid, Shawn, in the interview room.

He takes the professor to Tilghman Middle School and on encountering the 6th-to-8th graders, they sense that they are in the correct place to undertake their research. Kima meets with her old mentor, Major Cedric Daniels, looking to get back under his new command in the Western District, but he says she's too good to go back to a district and that she needs to move laterally at worst.

He offers to talk to people on her behalf. In the meantime, Freamon visits the Deputy Ops and is told by Rawls that he is a hell of an investigator - Rawls seems sincere in his praise - but that his investigation is at an end. Rawls anticipates that Freamon might go to the city judge who signed the wiretap order, seeking protection. Rawls then offers to let him land softly, transferring him back to C.

Chiquan acts out a bit and the other girl, still angry at the earlier teasing, leaps up and slashes Chiquan across the face with a razor. As blood gushes from a screaming Chiquan, chaos erupts in the classroom. Prez is momentarily paralyzed with shock, but Grace Sampson arrives to disarm the angry girl and call for an ambulance.

As Ms. Sampson tends to Chiquan, Dukie softly approaches the angry girl, producing his mini-fan, which he has repaired. He turns it on, blows it gently toward the girl, then leaves it on the floor for her. She ignores him, her eyes glazed and hands bloodstained, as Dukie watches her.

One side just loses more slowly. Heading out into the early morning sunlight, he calls Chris Partlow before stopping at a corner grocery, where he buys a water and - upon being coldly eyed by the security guard -- brazenly pockets some lollipops and glares at the guard.

The working man waits for Marlo's exit before confronting him outside. And I ain't stepping to, but I am a man. Dukie Weems heard that the girl who wielded the razor in Prez's class had a father who killed three police and that her mother boils cats and serves 'em. Hence, borders and boundary-making are emotionally and politically charged processes.

Thus, countries, continents and political regimes all partake in drawing borders and enforcing them as a way of reassuring their identities, while at the same time, reasserting sovereign power. The fictive, fluid nature of nationality and citizenship are nowhere better revealed than by examining the changes in British immigration legislation see Commonwealth Immigration Acts , , , which ensured that darker-skinned citizens of commonwealth countries were categorized as immigrants upon arrival to the UK Bhambra Throughout history, borders have been justified and implemented for their role in keeping undesirables out and in preventing contamination of the national body—or appearing to do so Weber and Bowling Foreign national criminals and those deemed at risk of offending are watched most closely and treated most harshly.

Different standards are applied to their involvement in petty crime, rendering them vulnerable to administrative removal or deportation Griffiths Correspondingly, criminal justice processes and policies have been directed increasingly toward identifying foreign nationals who are constituted as undesirable, removable and deportable. These practices are increasingly preemptive in nature and blend with existing criminal justice procedures that target visible racial minorities disproportionately Parmar a.

For example, in the UK, the police have been enlisted to manage migration directly and research I have conducted on its consequences is discussed below. Theories of representation are useful for understanding how agents that are enforcing borders interpret their work and the function of borders. Hall , for example, signals to us that the world is not reflected accurately in the mirror of language.

Language operates as a representational system and is key to understanding the way in which meaning is produced; representation is the production of the meaning of the concepts in our minds through language Hall Hall suggested three approaches to understanding representation.

It reproduces itself via screens and mirrors of various kinds. Nexus involves stationing immigration officers in police custody suites so that the immigration status of foreign national suspects can be checked immediately using the Home Office database.

Nexus was inaugurated in and has led to the removal of individuals between and —a figure expected to increase following Brexit when European Union citizens will be subject to British immigration rules Griffiths and Morgan From to , I collected over fifty interviews with police officers, police staff, policy makers and immigration enforcement officers across the UK.

I also observed police custody spaces and shadowed immigration enforcement officers and Home Office immigration personnel. The immigration case hearings I attended took place in London and Greater London. In total, I interviewed fifty-eight participants and conducted hours of observation. I obtained informed consent from all participants and communicated that they were free to withdraw from the study at any time. All names and identifying details were anonymized and are presented as such in this article.

In conducting a semi-ethnographic study with interviews, I was able to understand how the police come face-to-face with migration control enforcement, and to witness the ways in which foreign national offenders were perceived and processed through the system. The data were analyzed by typing up my fieldwork observation notes and interviews and coding them for common themes Braun et al. The findings align according to the following themes. These perceptions fuel and are fueled by cultural racism and perceived threats, which range from the impact on stretched social resources to terrorism and other criminal activity.

Second, I found that the framing of migrants is an active process as opposed to being flatly descriptive. While this may be intuitive, it was clear that the framing acted as a device through which police and immigration agents cast judgment and expressed ambivalence toward their work in order to rationalize it. It was here that metaphors and vivid descriptions come to the fore and demonstrate why understanding how migrants are framed is vital for potentially transforming racialized narratives.

All of these findings constitute the overall conceptual-metaphorical framework used in this article, and the mirrors metaphor is based on an analysis of how the participants represent their views on migration and foreign national offenders. Based on these findings, I conceptualize borders to be like mirrors because they are multidimensional in their function and also encourage us to look at ourselves. The discussion that follows examines these themes and, in doing so, provides further foundation for the use of borders as mirrors as a heuristic device and for its focus in this article.

One of the most compelling narratives that emerged from my research was that police officers who carried out immigration checks emphasized that their role was vital to ensuring security beyond the physical border. In their terms, the police duty in immigration control had widened and magnified to include securitizing practices, as the following statement demonstrates:.

We do the checks to ensure the security of everyday citizens. That is now our mandate. People are checked when they enter the country, yes, but not always… being criminal is not a static thing. It might be that you entered the UK with no record, but then a person may have started engaging in crime after being here. The focus on borders as a way of providing security from terrorism allows the wider causes of terrorism, such as disenfranchisement, foreign policy and radicalization, to be effectively muted and to deflect attention from the potentially draconian and counter-productive approaches to policing migration.

Indeed, the dual crises of migration and terrorism have become the dominant political figures through which Western nation-states express their own internal crises Nail In discussions with the police, it was this duality and possibility of a migrant being a terrorist or a terrorist being a migrant that was often presented as a justification for the work they did:. Not all refugees and migrants are truly seeking help. Notions of cultural distance among foreign national offenders were emphasized and, at times, these differences were capitalized on in order to police suspects.

For example, when asked about how they decide where to focus their work, an immigration officer told me rather nonchalantly that there were some sectors where they expected to find illegal migrants:. We know that Indian restaurants are more likely to employ people without papers. So… we target those places on particular days and times.

Same for say taxi drivers and targeting particular areas and times. As the statement above illustrates, migrants were seen as culturally distant and as a collective mass rather than as individuals. People were regarded as units of cultural inscription—vehicles of cultural expression in a representative sense Knowles —and were denied human agency, much like the water metaphors discussed above.

Another claimed:. You know they [migrants] just have different ideas about how people should interact. I mean there are real cultural disconnects. The other day a Nigerian Muslim male was brought in suspected of domestic violence. The neighbors called. Turns out he had no leave to remain yet had managed to marry two women at the same time since arriving. It must have slipped through the system, before everything was joined up. Cultural racism, as discussed above, has long shaped arguments justifying the need for border control Sharma Anxiety about gender subordination practiced in immigrant communities can act as a proxy for xenophobia and erase the presence and complexities of other factors—including colonial legacies, politics, racism and structural and individual pathologies—that may be at play Volpp Here stood another example of how bordering deflected from the reality of cultural racism while also reinscribing it.

Connections between nationality and types of criminality have been made readily by senior-level police officers in the course of hailing the apparent success of Nexus Rowley and Rodhouse While this was ostensibly a neutral practice, it also made visible the racial grammar that punctuated police and immigration work.

It revealed the social practices that race gave rise to, and the practical and embodied things that race made happen Knowles By showing the volume of offenses by country without any nuance or breakdown of the figures, the link between nationality and criminality was thus magnified, fueling cultural racism based on stereotypes of offending.

This framing served to deflect the racializing practices that bordering resulted in by keeping a focus on connecting national origin and criminality rather than ethnicity and criminality—the latter of which was the subtext to the narratives of securitization that provided justification for border enforcement. Some of the phrases used by police and immigration officers reflected common conceptualizations of migrants discussed at the beginning of this article, evoking water, overflow, deluge and corresponding difficulty of absorption, incorporation and assumed incapacity for integration.

The responses applied constructionist modes of representation, where actors adopted the conceptual systems of news and popular culture to construct meaning Hall :. We are just so swamped. We cannot absorb more migrants, so we need to divert those who have committed crimes before they become a bigger problem here in the UK. We do need to have limits on the types of people we take in and are essentially adopting to be part of us.

As these statements reveal, agents responding to migration reflected the sentiments about floods and streams of people coming to the UK and the perceived difficulty in managing them. Some, like the immigration officer, were critical of the way the reports suggested an uncontrollable presence which then left officers, such as her, responsible for managing the situation and providing a semblance of order. The focus on limits and the idea that the country was at capacity promoted deflection away from the humanitarian crisis and the issue of responsibility.

Other discussions showed how officers perceived their role in bordering practices as enabling the flow of people and delineating the good from the bad. Again, this chimed closely with the discussions about borders serving a regulatory function or acting as a sorting mechanism. We need to have a different channel, a different standard like for them [foreign national offenders] else the usual system [criminal justice system], that citizens go through, just gets clogged up.

These examples and the metaphors adopted demonstrate how police and immigration officers have integrated the metaphors about migration into understanding their worlds and their work. The concepts were given meaning by the actors through the language they adopted to describe the roles they assumed Hall One police custody sergeant, for example, told me that he found it difficult when migrants were completely destitute and had nowhere else to go.

Through its stated aim to enhance collaboration between immigration and the police, Nexus seeks to ensure that those eligible for removal are channeled through a separate route, creating a two-tiered system—one for suspected foreign national offenders and another for citizen offenders. With the police implementing Nexus, the performative aspects of bordering are arguably heightened. Against the criminal justice principle of being innocent until proven guilty, one could see how questions about nationality and citizenship status were inherently accusatory, particularly given the increasing criminalization of immigration violations in the UK Aliverti In other instances, I saw people without secure immigration status instantly plead guilty to crimes because they thought they might be treated more leniently or given a reduction in their sentence because they were confronted with the police as enforcers of immigration rules and therefore assumed they would be subject to criminal justice procedures.

Through my fieldwork on the impact of Nexus, I saw how established day-to-day police practices intersected with immigration control duties to uphold and re produce racial hierarchies Parmar a. As a component of the hostile environment, Nexus police work enabled another layer of scrutiny to be applied to suspect populations, mirroring societal-level fears about racial others. In this respect, the naming of an environment as hostile for migrants—and, by implication, those perceived to be racial others—was an example of how meaning is constructed within discourse and how it worked to regulate the conduct of police and immigration agents Hall The collateral consequences of Nexus are potentially significant as victims with insecure immigration statuses who approach the police for help are likely to be apprehensive for fear of being referred to immigration enforcement.

While the introduction of new measures, including a ban on officers checking the police national computer solely to see if someone has leave to remain in the UK, are welcome, the wide discretion nevertheless afforded to the police to carry out immigration checks during the course of an investigation remains, even where the person is a victim of crime Dodd This practice—to extend the mirrors metaphor—acted like a two-way mirror where suspects were watched, monitored and tracked without knowledge of the practice, its aims or its consequences.

Once identified as not having papers, digital technologies of border control were employed to transcend time and space by searching databases, categorizing people and distinguishing outsiders and insiders Lyon They would subsequently be monitored and their biometric data scoured to identify avenues for removal proceedings to be set in train. The case of Sammy illustrates the point. Sammy, a thirty-two-year old male, was brought into police custody under suspicion of dealing Class A drugs and the possession of prohibited firearms.

Following his arrest, Sammy was identified as a Jamaican national without leave to remain in the UK. Born in Jamaica, Sammy came to the UK when he was seven years old and was raised by his aunt and uncle. Sammy had been arrested and convicted previously for assisting in a burglary and a handful of other petty theft offenses. His citizenship status was not scrutinized previously. I saw how criminal records were repurposed under Nexus and their digitization allowed the immediate sharing of previous convictions and recent criminal justice punishment information to be accessed, in order to create a file about a person Jacobs ; Lageson and Maruna The role of the police in the hostile environment, then, prioritized the pursuit of exclusion and efficiency at the expense of fairness and justice Bowling and Westenra Racial disproportionalities that are embedded in the criminal justice system were magnified and capitalized upon, legitimizing the invisible surveillance of racial minorities.

This article has discussed how borders are multidimensional in their capacity to represent and reflect racialized anxieties and fears, as well as how they can be used to deflect attention from racialized othering and for focus to be directed instead toward immigration control as a proportionate response to protect public resources. The empirical research presented illustrates how policies, such as Nexus that dictate how migration is policed and conducted by state actors, advance, reflect and constitute those fears.

By analyzing border practices, we see how discourse and policy are translated into action, and we are reminded of the fact that police and immigration agents are interpretive actors in their own right Cote-Boucher et al. In looking at the detail of these practices and how they are tied intimately to the everyday politics of culture, migration and race, we can acknowledge the connections between the conceptual and metaphoric description of borders alongside the reality of what happens and to whom.

When policing migration policies fuse together stereotypes of criminality and migrant background, they also reflect and perpetuate the racialized anxieties that have pervaded societal values, ensuring that the association between race and migration—and difference and criminality—remains entrenched firmly in everyday thinking. Bordering practices are evidently a process —ongoing throughout time and space and affecting various generations of the same family—rather than a single event or moment in history.

The Windrush scandal in the UK, as well as the empirical findings discussed in this article, further underscore this point. Recognition of the long-term effects of bordering may encourage acknowledgment of the opportunity for self-reflection prompted by a reflexive reading of borders and what they do. Indeed, the ambivalence and malleability of the concept of borders and the purposes they serve may provide an opportunity for thinking about them through the lens of transformation and beyond critique in order to conceive of and establish a preferred future Balibar ; Weber There is not the space here to provide a diverse set of different media examples or to conduct a comprehensive discourse analysis.

I have omitted specific details about locations and the roles that were observed in order to preserve the anonymity of those who participated in the research. Given the sensitivity of the cases and, on occasion, witness protection requirements, providing even minor details would allow cases to be identified. Police custody suites in England and Wales have a range of actors working within them.

Police custody sergeants are the most senior police officers present and responsible for the welfare of arrested persons brought to the police station and for making overall decisions in the suites. Police officers are of varying ranks and usually present in the police station to book individuals, who are suspected of an offense, into the custody suite. Custody detention officers are not sworn police officers and are responsible for ensuring the safety of the custody suite and attending to the needs of suspects being held.

These duties can include the restraint of violent suspects, providing refreshments, and making regular checks of detainees. During the s, the British government encouraged post-World War II migration from its former colonies to rebuild the labor force. Although the Windrush generation grew up in Britain, many were not formally naturalized and so lacked citizenship documents despite having lived and worked in Britain for the last fifty years or more.

Stories published by The Guardian documented numerous cases of Black Caribbean people who had been sent to immigration detention centers, deported to Jamaica, issued with legal threats and asked to prove their status as part of the hostile environment and the routine checks introduced as part of the Immigration Act Aas, K. Analysing a world in motion. Theoretical Criminology, 11 2 , — Google Scholar.

Abid, R. Discourse and Communication, 11 2 , — Agamben, G. States of exception. Aliverti, A. Crimes of mobility: Criminal law and the regulation of immigration. London: Routledge. Enlisting the public in the policing of immigration. The British Journal of Criminology, 55 2 , — Anderson, B. Editorial: Why no borders? Refuge, 26 2 , 5— Andersson, R. Illegality Inc: Clandestine migration and the business of bordering Europe.

Armenta, A. Protect, serve and deport. Back, L. Migrant city. Balibar, E. At the borders of citizenship: A democracy in translation? European Journal of Social Theory, 13 3 , — Banks, J. Unmasking deviance: The visual construction of asylum seekers and refugees in english national newspapers. Critical Criminology: An International Journal, 20 3 , — Barker, V.

Policing difference. Bradford, B. Jauregui, I. Steinberg Eds. London: Sage. Basham, V. Bauman, Z. Strangers at our door. Cambridge: Polity. Beale, J. HMS Bulwark overloaded by migrant tide. BBC News. June 8. Bhambra, G.

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